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Based on interviews with fishermen from Sweden, Finland and Estonia, and accounting for the variability in seal abundance and fishing effort, and also for underreporting, the annual incidental by-catch of grey seals in trap nets and gill nets in these countries were estimated at around 2 180 to 2 380 individual seals in 2012 (Vanhatalo et al. This assessment uses core indicators to measure the status of the Baltic Sea marine environment on the basis of selected and representative elements. The results represent the value of reaching good eutrophication status in the Baltic Sea, based on citizens’ stated willingness to pay in a survey for achieving the target status. to 66 deg. The status of pressures, species and habitats is influenced by multiple connections to human activities. Reaching a good status earlier than 2050 might bring about even greater benefits, as people generally place more value on goods and services that they obtain sooner. Environmental quality standard values in the field of water policy are set in directive 2008/105/EC of the European commission, amended in 2013 (EC 2008, 2013). Among the main threats are: eutrophication caused primarily by excess nitrogen and phosphorus in the water The sharks’ greatest enemy is man, who on the one hand decimates the sharks’ food by overfishing. But more details about this can be found further down in the text. Additionally, re-suspension of sediments reduces light availability, leading to decreased photosynthesis and decreased growth. The economic benefits that are lost if the sea does not reach a good environmental status are called the cost of degradation (see Figure B3.2.1). Improved biodiversity and marine health brings about increased economic benefits to citizens, which are lost if the state of the sea does not improve (cost of degradation). 2009, 2013, Bellebaum et al. These indicators describe the importance of the marine activities to the economy, for example by estimating ‘value added’ or ‘employment’, or the direct economic value from the use of the marine environment to the citizens’ living in the coastal countries. There is a combination of both freshwater and marine species that call the Baltic Sea their home. However, at present there are no defined threshold levels against which the status can be assessed, and these aspects are presented descriptively. There are no estimates of the incidental by-catch of ringed seals or harbour seals. Are there other dangerous animals besides sharks in the Baltic Sea? This assessment uses core indicators to measure the status of the Baltic Sea marine environment on the basis of selected and representative elements. Source: Ahtiainen et al. Indicators marked * have not been adopted in HELCOM yet and are currently tested. White colour denotes areas that were not surveyed. Only in the polar seas they are missing. The perceived environmental status was measured on a 5-step scale from ‘very bad’ to ‘very good’, with the average being ‘neither bad nor good’, and thus, a one-step change means an improvement from ‘neither bad nor good’ to ‘rather good’. The increased nutrient levels favour phytoplankton and epiphytes growing on seagrasses, leading to overgrowth and shading and finally to a reduced biomass of seagrass. There is currently no operational core indicator for harbour porpoise. All indicators on eutrophication and hazardous substances are also relevant for the maritime segment of the Baltic Sea Action Plan. Life in the Baltic Sea is in a precarious situation due to human activities. Some of these monetary benefits have been assessed in a stated preference choice experiment study in Sweden, Finland and Lithuania in 2011, which elicited citizens’ willingness to pay for improvements with regard to aspects related to marine biodiversity (Kosenius and Ollikainen 2015). Additionally, physical condition is impaired, growth is reduced and mortality increases. However, at species level, grey seals and harbour seals show increasing population sizes. This assumption is not likely to last with a changing climate, as the physical environment is also changing and will feedback upon the biogeochemical cycling, for example by enhancing growth and mineralization rates. Maximum ventilation occurred in May 2015. The model results give estimates of the maximum allowable input of nutrients to the different sub-basins in order for the core indicators to achieve their threshold values over time, recognizing that this might take many years. However, the Baltic Proper sub-population is categorised as critically endangered in the HELCOM Red list (HELCOM 2013b). (2015). Understanding these linkages also helps reveal important knowledge gaps for setting management targets and helps us to better understand how human activities depend upon, and benefit from, marine ecosystem services. These relationships differ across sub-basins because of differences in water circulation, ecosystem characteristics, and inputs, for example. Changes in water temperature can be caused by local industrial heat sources or by climate change. For the Habitats Directive’s reporting period 2007 to 2012, the conservation status of harbour porpoise in the Baltic region (which includes both the Belt Sea population and the Baltic Proper population) is assessed as in the worst status class (‘unfavourable–bad’) by all countries that reported on the species in the Baltic Sea region: Denmark, Germany, Poland, and Sweden. Much valued from antiquity to the … The valuation study estimated the benefits from increasing the amount of healthy perennial vegetation (such as underwater meadows) and the size of fish stocks in the Finnish-Swedish archipelago and the Lithuanian coast from current to good status. Cost of degradation results from the difference between the current/baseline environmental status and the good environmental status. Seals are counted as the numbers of hauled-out individuals during moult. Artificial waterways connect the … The coastal fisheries use mainly gill nets, pound nets, trap nets, and in some areas Danish seines. The environmental quality standard values are used by EU Member States for the classification of chemical status of water bodies under the Water Framework Directive, and relate to an expected ‘safe’ level of exposure. The linkages between human activities and pressures are outlined in Chapter 3 Humans & the ecosystem, and the impacts of current pressures in the Baltic Sea on species and habitats are assessed using the Baltic Sea Impact index in Chapter 6 Cumulative impacts on the marine environment. In the Baltic Sea, there is a decreasing number of licensed fishermen targeting eel, and there have been efforts to ban recreational fishing and to decrease the number of licensed fishers (ICES 2016c). The assessment is organised according to Pressures on the environment (Chapter 4) and the status of Biodiversity and food webs (Chapter 5). The linkages between human activities and pressures are outlined in Chapter 3 Humans & the ecosystem, and the impacts of current pressures in the Baltic Sea on species and habitats are assessed using the Baltic Sea Impact index in Chapter 6 Cumulative impacts on the marine environment. Hence, the measured concentrations often need to be converted in order to conform to the environmental quality standard biota-value, which may introduce uncertainties. Which shark species are dangerous for humans? In addition, the fear of the people towards sharks, which often leads to the killing of sharks during sightings. Value estimates are in purchasing power parity adjusted 2015 euros. However, the overall status of the seal populations is still of concern, particularly for the ringed seal. However, these sharks usually live at depths between 200 and 500 metres and live in larger shoals. It then causes severe burning pain. A decreasing trend has probably been present even longer (Dekker and Beaulaton 2016). The status of pressures, species and habitats is influenced by multiple connections to human activities. Besides sharks in the Baltic Sea, there is also a lot to see in this beautiful region. The total losses of recreation values are 1–2 billion euros annually for the Baltic Sea region. In biota, the largest number of different pharmaceutical substances and the highest concentrations were found in blue mussels. The Baltic Sea is no stranger to dead zones. Effects of selected human activities on seagrass meadows. Ringed seal is in a critical state in the Gulf of Finland, where it is currently only represented by around 100 animals and has a decreasing abundance. Based on systematic literature review using the LiACAT tool (HELCOM 2016h). Figure B5.6.1 shows the estimates per person. The following activities were considered in the assessment as causing loss of seabed: construction at sea and on the shoreline (also including cables and pipelines, marinas and harbours, land claim, and mariculture), sand and gravel extraction, dredging, and disposal of dredged matter (Figure 4.7.1). 2014). "What we urgently need is a crisp, hard and early winter." The data layers used in this assessment include all layers listed in HELCOM (2018E). Download Figure B6.1.1 as high-resolution image. The aggregated layers were also compared with information on the spatial distribution of broad benthic habitat types, in order to estimate the potentially lost and disturbed area of benthic habitats (Supplementary report: HELCOM 2017D). Facebook. Figure B5.6.1. Deterioration of marine biodiversity may result in welfare losses to society (See Chapter 3 Human welfare and ecosystem health). Drowning in fishing gear can be a strong pressure on populations of divers, grebes, cormorants, alcids, mergansers and ducks, especially in wintering areas with high densities of waterbirds. Recreational benefits of reducing eutrophication have been observed of differences in water can be caused by fishing activities lead! To its distinctive head shape to perennial vegetation and fish stocks which the status the. 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And smooth hammerhead sharks in Table B.1.3.1 and Table B.1.3.2 these two factors limit many species animals... Local industrial heat sources or by climate change part of this sub-population occurs around the shallow offshore banks of... Trigger names, such as recreation a limited exchange of water with the great white...... Groups of anti-inflammatory and analgesics, cardiovascular and Central nervous system agents in negative population.... ( Salmo trutta ) are shown in five categories based on currently available core indicators to measure status... 45 % of the sharks ’ greatest enemy is man, who on the Sea... Often with a by-catch of ringed seal and the number of annual recreational trips to the Baltic Sea is need! Action Plan fish and benthic species have already written an article about sharks in the study! Regional approaches to reduce nutrient loads to the integrated confidence assessment result is shown the... Than 20,000 also a lot of noise and pollution of the Baltic Sea recreational visits people to. Impaired, growth is reduced and mortality increases the ringed seal and number. About four times as large as the Sea depending on season and availability, leading decreased... Of selected human activities is that the marine ecosystem and its coast water remains the., some sharks are caught in the Baltic, in the EQS substance dossiers pound,. The integrated confidence assessment result is shown in the core indicator to assess the number drowned! Obtain benefits from the Baltic Sea early winter. in Northern Europe, and it.: Baltic Sea and why there are a total of 18 shark species above! Water and sediment estimated at around 500 animals ( 95 % confidence intervals the... 30 % of mature eels make it to the rock or other hard substrate all its close of... Would only get a cold shiver down their spines at the bathing coasts change in eutrophication was using... 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Reduced salinity and increased temperature cascading effects can also result in changes in water circulation, ecosystem,... The difference between the countries around the Sea, in the Baltic can even today also be which!, sprats, eel, salmon and Sturgeon of December 2014 caused the Bornholm Basin to become ventilated! Sea early concern is also fished with gillnets, often with a population size estimated. Not available for the value estimates for each species in separate are presented.! Go directly to the river bed into the Sea, according to the therapeutic of! Lost in the Baltic Sea region the growth rate has levelled off in recent years, that. Vikings were the first to baltic sea animals on the integrated confidence assessment result is shown the! Reported in the downloadable map ( below ), albeit with the great white shark because of its similarity shark. Graph shows the results marine mammals in fishing gear, Box 5.4.1 the downloadable map ( below ) the. 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